Principal Transformational Leadership Behaviors and Teacher Motivation
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While a vast amount of research exists on both teacher motivation and principal leadership styles, there is very little research that examines these topics together. Principals play a key role in the motivation of teachers, however, exactly how principals influence teacher motivation is not clear. The purpose of this research was to examine principal transformational leadership behavior to determine its effect on teacher motivation dimensions such as collective teacher efficacy and organizational citizenship behaviors. This study relies on Ryan and Deci’s (2000) Self Determination Theory, arguing that if principals were able to meet teacher needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness through transformational leadership behavior, then high levels of collective teacher efficacy and organizational citizenship behavior would indicate greater motivation. Survey data were gathered from principals, faculty, parents, and students from 73 schools in a large urban district as part of a larger study. Participation in the study was voluntary. Findings do suggest that principal behavior and actions play a role in the motivation of teachers. While transformational leadership behaviors do have a part to play in increasing outcomes of teacher motivation, they alone do not appear to be enough. Increasing teacher motivation, requires principals to address the psychological needs of teachers by fostering enabling school structures and establishing effective professional learning communities.
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